In the very heart of Moscow, on the reserved Kremlin land, there are several unique museums, united by a common name - State Museums of the Moscow Kremlin. They store priceless works of applied and fine art that have survived centuries and entered our modern life as something inalienable, an integral part of spiritual wealth and a cultural heritage of our people.
In fact, the museums of the Kremlin consist of 6 museums. These are the Armory, the Museum of Applied Art and Life of the 17th Century, the Annunciation, Assumption and Arkhangelsk Cathedral Museums and the Church of the Deposition of the Robe.
Even if you look at the names of these museums, it becomes clear that they are very different in nature. Kremlin cathedrals together with the bell tower of Ivan the Great and the Faceted Chamber form a one-of-a-kind, unique ensemble Cathedral Square - the most ancient square of Moscow.
All Moscow KremlinIts walls and towers, its squares and buildings, the creations of famous and unknown masters concentrated here are all pages of native history, witnesses of glorious and great events. The Kremlin from the time of the founding of the Moscow state to the beginning of the 18th century — the moment the capital was transferred to St. Petersburg — was the center of the country's political, spiritual, and cultural life. After the Great October Socialist Revolution, from March 1918, when the Soviet government moved to Moscow, the Kremlin regains its original significance as a center, but now Soviet Russia, and then the capital of the Soviet Union. The Kremlin is becoming a symbol of the new socialist state. Here his pulse beats, the most important matters are decided here and the magnificent prospects of the future are born.
It is impossible to build the future without knowing the history and mastering the culture of past generations. It is no coincidence that V. I. Lenin wrote: “We need to take the whole culture that capitalism has left, and build socialism from it. We need to take all of science, technology, the weight of knowledge, art. ” That is why among the first decrees of Soviet power were decrees on the preservation of cultural treasures and the transfer of museums to state ownership. That is why V. Lenin, two months after his move to the Kremlin, despite the complexity of the moment and the huge number of urgent, priority tasks, gives orders for the restoration of Kremlin architectural monuments. In May 1918, a commission was created in the Kremlin to preserve and disclose paintings. In the early years of Soviet power, treasures from the Patriarchal sacristy, Kremlin cathedrals and churches were transferred to the Armory, which became a public property.
Thus began the Soviet period of the Armory and the cathedrals, which had lost their religious purpose and were gradually turning into museums. As in all museums in the country, active work has begun on building a new socialist culture. The scientific processing and systematization of nationalized collections was continued, the development of a fundamentally new historical and artistic display of works of art was begun, and their widespread popularization was launched. Already in 1920 in the main center of the Kremlin museum complex - The Armory opened the first temporary exhibition of enamel and fabrics. The Kremlin Museum received its first visitors.
Over the years, the collection of the museum increased, and, naturally, its scientific activity expanded. Now the State Museums of the Moscow Kremlin is a major scientific center. Conferences are held here, collections of works are published, exhibitions are organized, lectures are given. The museums have a large team of experienced restorers. Researchers study, promote and preserve historical and artistic values, in total - about 90 thousand works. Ancient weapons and armor, gold and silver dishes, jewelry, Old Russian books with miniatures, state regalia, precious fabrics, rich horse harness, ceremonial carriages, wooden sculpture, frescoes and easel paintings - this is not a complete list of treasures of the Kremlin museums.
Different ways gathered here these unique works. Most of them were once made here in the workshops of the Kremlin, where wonderful craftsmen worked. Many works were created in the Kremlin by renowned artists who were invited from other cities. Many were brought to Muscovy by foreign embassies as gifts and testify to the long-standing diplomatic relations of Russia with the countries of Europe and Asia, the important role of the Russian state on the world stage. Some objects arrived as trophies of famous battles and are material evidence of Russian military glory. Others were simply bought for the sovereign or the patriarchal court. Most of the collections came after the revolution. Chronicles, research by scientists, the works themselves reveal to us the names of their creators. The museums contain frescoes by Dionysius, icons of Andrei Rublev, Feofan Grek, Simon Ushakov, Fyodor Saltanov, works by gunsmiths Nikita Davydov, Grigory and Athanasius Vyatknykh, Ilya Prosvit, jewelers Gavrila Ovdokimov, Vasily Terentyev, Yuryeyerobov and Yuryeirobov. The names of many of them are still unknown.
But their creations live like a “second” life. They continue to delight and delight people, coming to the museums of the Kremlin. They are a living connection of the times and the talent of the creator nation. They open before us all new pages of the history of the country, the history of culture.